Milan Vána (email@example.com), Ales Pacl (fax+420 365 498015),
Jaroslav Pekárek (firstname.lastname@example.org) & Jirí Smítka (email@example.com)
Czech Hydrometeorological Institute, Kosetice Observatory, 394 22 Kosetice, Czech Republic.
The Kosetice Observatory of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute was established as a station specialising in the problems of the background environmental quality monitoring. The observatory is involved in the GAW/WMO (Global Atmosphere Watch) Programme as a regional station, as well as in the EMEP/ECE and the ICP/IM Programmes. Here we present data on background air and deposition quality monitoring, collected at the Observatory from 1990-1995.
Monthly means for ambient S compounds (Figure 1) show distinct annual variations, with maxima in winter and minima in summer. Concentrations have been declining steadily since 1991, reflecting a decrease in emissions regionally. The average annual concentrations at Czech regional level are similar to those in the non-impacted areas of central Europe.
Figures 2 and 3 indicate monthly means for N compounds. No distinct trend in NO2 concentrations was evident over the five year study period. Higher concentrations generally occur in the cold season.
Average monthly concentrations of surface ozone (Fig. 4) also exhibit maxima in late spring/early summer and minima in winter. The surface ozone concentrations at the regional level reach values that affect both human health and vegetation.
Volatile organic compounds (VOC's) have been measured since 1993 as called for in the EMEP programme. Most of VOC's exhibit an annual cycle that reflects their emission levels, i.e. with maxima in winter and minima in summer. Isoprene is an exception. Although ranking among the most reactive VOC's, it is of natural origin and displays an inverse pattern. It also plays an important role in regions outside the most polluted areas.
The comparison between wet-only and bulk deposition in open air and throughfall suggests that the concentrations of all the elements and compounds monitored in precipitation water increase with their passage through tree canopies. This bears out the high level of dry deposition of S, which constitutes two-thirds of its total S deposition.
Vána, M. et al.: Environment Quality in the Czech Republic at the Regional Level CHMÚ, Prague, (1997).
Fig. 1. Sulphur compounds, Kosetice 19901995.
Fig. 2. Nitrogen dioxide, Kosetice 19901995.
Fig. 3. HNO3-N and NO3-N in the atmosphere, Kosetice 19901995.
Fig. 4. Surface ozone, Kosetice 19921995.
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